The Tangri river originates in the Shivalik hills on the border of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh State, and flows along the haryana and Punjab, India border before meeting with Ghaggar river at the confluence. Before that time, the Sutlej is said to have flowed into Ghaggar.. It is the only river with hymns entirely dedicated to it: RV 6.61, RV 7.95 and RV 7.96.It is mentioned as a divine and large river,which flows "from the mountains to the samudra," which some take as the Indian Ocean. Between 2500 BCE and 1900 BCE, some tectonic disturbances caused tilt in topography of Northwest India resulting in the migration of rivers. The water loss due to these movements caused the Sarasvati river to dry up in the Thar Desert. The river is known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage.   Hakra River. The Yamuna shifted its course eastwards, supposedly in the early 2nd millennium BCE, allegedly reaching its current bed by 1st millennium BCE, while the Drishadvati bed retained only a small seasonal flow. The identification is also justified by post-Vedic literature like. , These views, however, have been contradicted by recent geophysical research, which suggests that the Ghaggar-Hakra system, although having greater discharge in Harappan times which was enough to sustain human habitation, was not sourced by the glaciers and snows of the Himalayas—but rather by a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers. Several times, but not continuously, it carried the water of the Sutlej and Ghaggar during the Bronze Age period. Lua error: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.  Painted Grey Ware sites (ca. Mughal between 1974 and 1977, over 400 sites were mapped along 300 miles of the Hakra river. Note MLBD NEWSLETTER (Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass), Nov. The river is known as Ghaggar before the Ottu barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the barrage. As mentioned, the Sutlej (and the Beas and Ravi) have frequently changed their courses. Geochemical Constraints,” Current Science, Vol. Ten Lines on Ghaggar River in English.  Many settlements of the Indus Valley Civilisation have been found along and inside the river beds of the Ghaggar and Hakra rivers. The Sutlej and Yamuna Rivers have changed their courses several times..  The Yamuna may have flowed into the Sarasvati river through the Chautang or the Drishadvati channel, since many Harappan sites have been discovered on these dried out river beds. By contact with remnants of the IVC like the Cemetery H culture, legendary knowledge of the event may have been acquired. Oldham (1886) was the first to suggest that geological events had redirected the river, and to connect it to the lost Sarasvati: "[it] was formerly the Sarasvati; that name is still known amongst the people, and the famous fortress of Sarsuti or Sarasvati was built upon its banks, nearly 100 miles below the present junction with the Ghaggar.". (Gadgil and Thapar 1990 and references therein). In the late Harappan period the number of late Harappan sites in the middle Ghaggar-Hakra channel and in the Indus valley diminishes, while it expands in the upper Ghaggar-Sutlej channels and in Saurashtra.  Late Holocene aridification subsequently reduced the Ghaggar-Hakra to the seasonal river it is today. The Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent, endorheic river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. R. Mughal (1997), summing up the evidence, concludes that the Bronze Age Ghaggar-Hakra sometimes carried more, sometimes less water (for example derived from the Sutlej). They are not always visible on the ground because of excessive silting and encroachment by sand of the dried out river channels. This may be precise in geological terms, but for the mature Indus Valley Civilization (2600 to 1900 BC) it makes all the difference whether the river dried up in 2500 (its early phase) or 2000 (its late phase). , According to some paleo-environmental scientists and Archaeologists, between 2500 BCE and 1900 BCE some tectonic disturbances caused a tilt in topography of Northwest India resulting in the migration of river. However, satellite images contradict this: they do not show subterranean water in reservoirs in the dunes between the Indus and the end of the Hakra west of Fort Derawar/Marot. On the other hand, the description of the Naditama Sarasvati in the Rigveda matches the physical features of the Helmand River in Afghanistan, more precisely its tributary the Harut River, whose older name was Haraxvatī in Avestan. The water loss due to these movements caused the river to dry up in the Thar Desert, without reaching the sea. However, most of the Harappan sites along the Sarasvati are found in desert country, and have remained undisturbed since the end of the Indus Civilization. 8, 25 October 2004, (see for example Studies from the Post-Graduate Research Institute of Deccan College, Pune, and the Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), Jodhpur.  It has also been suggested that the loss of rainfall in much of its catchment area as well as deforestation and overgrazing may have also contributed to the drying up of the river. , However, Henri-Paul Francfort, utilizing images from the French satellite SPOT two decades ago, found that the large river Sarasvati is pre-Harappan altogether and started drying up already in the middle of the 4th millennium BC; during Harappan times only a complex irrigation-canal network was being used. Most of the Mature Harappan sites are located in the middle Ghaggar-Hakra river valley, and some on the Indus and in Kutch-Saurashtra. 3.82.111; 3.130.3; 6.7.47; 6.37.1-4., 9.34.81; 9.37.1-2, J. Shaffer, in: J. Bronkhorst & M. Deshpande (eds. It is commonly agreed that the tenth Book of the Rig Veda is later than the others. ) V.N. The Rig Vedic hymn X 75, however, gives a list of names of rivers where Sarasvati is merely mentioned while Sindhu receives praise. The Sarasvati River is mentioned in all books of the Rigveda except the fourth. , Finally, near Suratgarh, the Ghaggar is joined by the dried up Chautang river (identified with vedic Drishadvati).. The Tapti River along with its tributaries flows over the plains of Vidharbha, ... Ghaggar River – Inland Drainage. , In a survey conducted by M.R. The Sutlej shifted its channel northwards repeatedly, and was eventually captured by the Indus system. There also is a major paleochannel between the turning point of the Sutlej and where the Ghaggar river bed widens. More recently, anthropologists Gregory Possehl (1942–2011), J. M. Kenoyer, and professional archaeological writer, Jane McIntosh, have suggested that many religious and literary invocations to Sarasvati in the Rig Veda were to a real Himalayan river, whose waters, on account of seismic events, were diverted, leaving only a seasonal river, the Ghaggar-Hakra, in the original river bed.. The terrain of this river contains pebbles of quartzite and metamorphic rocks, while the lower terraces in these valleys do not contain such rocks. Another reference to the Sarasvati is in the geographical enumeration of the rivers in the late Rigvedic Nadistuti sukta (10.75.5, this verse enumerates all important rivers from the Ganges in the east up to the Indus in the west in a strict geographical order), as "Ganges, Yamuna, Sarasvati, Shutudri", the Sarasvati is placed between the Yamuna and the Sutlej, consistent with the Ghaggar identification.
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