CTmax, critical cardiac maximum temperature; fH,0, heart rate at 0°C. Supplementary material available online at http://jeb.biologists.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1242/jeb.093849/-/DC1. This acclimation-induced difference ranged from 2.6 beats 30 s−1 in Portugal (P=0.002) to 10.6 beats 30 s−1 in California (P=0.01). Crabs selected for experiments were between 50 and 70 mm carapace width, except for in British Columbia and Portugal, where the majority of crabs selected were slightly larger (BC; 75.5±6.9 mm) or smaller (PT; 45.7±6.5 mm) (Table 1), respectively. *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001; n.s.=P≥0.05. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. 1A). Professor Simon Maddrell’s distinguished career has long been intertwined with the history of The Company of Biologists and JEB. These two abilities may largely govern how eurythermal an ectothermic species is, and thus help determine its chances for success in a warming world, particularly over short time scales. All populations are not necessarily physiologically equal, even in widely dispersing marine species, and population-level variation may be crucial to survival in a changing environment. Estaurine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44: 195-202. A marine crab’s challenges include shorebirds, ish, other crabs, humans, and their harsh environment (power of the waves and currents, the luctuation of temperature, the luctuation of salinity and oxygen levels, and the openness to predators). Crabs selected for these experiments spanned a range of integument colors. We do not capture any email address. 1B). was involved in designing this study, analyzing the data, and co-authoring this manuscript. Peterson Field Guide: A Guide to the Atlantic Sea Shore. Lobsters were also quite plastic, with a 3°C increase in heat tolerance between 4 and 20°C acclimation (Camacho et al., 2006). In a broader context, this example illustrates the potential importance of locally adapted populations in allowing a species to survive novel conditions. There is a growing appreciation of the importance of intraspecific variation in thermal physiology to a species' ability to survive and thrive in novel conditions (Somero, 2010; Sanford and Kelly, 2011). below), we performed subsequent analyses both with and without California data. Topics Adaptive variation among populations may enhance a species' survival, if poorly adapted populations can be replaced by recruits from populations already adapted to the new conditions (Sanford and Kelly, 2011). Feb,1997. What are the adaptations of a green crab? 2012) (J. Thiemer and G.N.S., unpublished data). Jaquette, L. Oct,1998. In crabs acclimated to 5°C, fH,0 decreased from north to south by 8.1 beats 30 s−1 in Europe (P<0.0001) and by 3.9 beats 30 s−1 between Newfoundland and New Jersey in East Coast NA (P<0.001) (Fig. Peterson Field Guide: A Guide to the Atlantic Sea Shore, http://wdfw.wa.gov/ais/species.php?Name=carcinus_maenas, http://www.wsg.washington.edu/outreach/mas/aquaculture/crab.html, © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. We found that, overall, the species is highly tolerant of both heat and cold, and that it survives higher temperatures than co-occurring native marine crustaceans. Green crabs were collected from seven sites: Toquart Bay, BC, Canada, and Seadrift Lagoon, CA, USA, on the West Coast of North America; North Harbour, NL, Canada, Walpole, ME, USA, and Tuckerton, NJ, USA, on the East Coast of North America; and Skitnepollen, Askøy, Norway, and Seixal, Portugal, in Europe (Fig. Widespread invasive species often are successful across a range of habitat temperatures and thus offer a special opportunity for analysis of differences in acclimatization potential and genetic variation due to thermal selection (Chown et al., 2007; Sorte et al., 2010b; Lockwood and Somero, 2011). 10/03/2013 Our experiments, coupled with the thriving green crab population in the cold waters of Newfoundland (Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 2011), strongly suggest that C. maenas may have considerable scope for expanding its range into waters that approach the freezing point of seawater. Physiological plasticity of cardiorespiratory function in a eurythermal marine teleost, the longjaw mudsucker, Enhancing thermal tolerance by eliminating the pejus range: a comparative study with three decapod crustaceans. Carapace Colour, Inter-moult Duration and the Behavioural amd Physiological Ecology of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenus. Studies have shown that the green crabs that are red in coloration tend to have a greater chance of mating with female green crabs, this is partly due to the enlarged claw size that the red males possess. In contrast, in congeneric terrestrial beetles, Calosi and colleagues found that species with the highest heat tolerance had the greatest capacity to acclimate, shifting these limits even higher (Calosi et al., 2008). Previous work with congeneric species has shown contradictory relationships between thermal tolerance, environmental temperature and acclimatory plasticity. While many abiotic factors doubtless impact green crab survival and recruitment at all life stages, our observations suggest that adults are highly eurythermal and this capacity may help govern the biogeographic range of the species. Crabs have several adaptations that help them survive life on the seashore, including antennae, funnel canals, claws and legs. Counting was carried out with a fast Fourier transform implemented in Python, supplemented by hand-counting for intervals with irregular or very low heart rates. 1997) Economic Importance for Humans: Positive . S1). However, this may simply reflect the fact that we observed a much greater difference in fH,0 among populations after 5°C acclimation (8.2 beats 30 s−1) than after 25°C acclimation (3.4 beats 30 s−1). the body of water between Africa, Europe, the southern ocean (above 60 degrees south latitude), and the western hemisphere. In contrast, the northern East Coast population was founded by a second, more recent introduction from northern Europe (Roman, 2006), perhaps introducing more cold-tolerant individuals into the East Coast and allowing the species to spread into colder northern waters. We used the difference in thermal tolerance between 5°C- and 25°C-acclimated animals from the same site to represent that population's short-term acclimatory plasticity. We observed a strong, consistent relationship between heat tolerance and latitude in the European native range and a weaker pattern in the invasive range along the East Coast of North America. Was Greta Van Susteren a defense attorney in the OJ Simpson case? Crabs were fed daily to satiety with Crab & Lobster Bites commercial crab food (HBH Pet Products, Springville, UT, USA). In contrast, acclimatory plasticity in cold tolerance significantly increased as maximum fH,0 increased The proportion of later-intermolt individuals in a sample was dictated in part by the makeup of the local population, and varied from 22.4% in Portugal to 73.0% in California. In our experiments, all animals recovered after exposure to 0 to −1°C for 20–60 min even in the case of specimens acclimated to 25°C, suggesting that animals retain the ability to survive sub-zero temperatures regardless of acclimation temperature. The crab can now be found from ranging from as far north as Nova Scotia and to the southern state of Virginia. For high temperature tolerance, segmented linear regression implemented in JoinPoint v3.5.2 (Kim et al., 2000) was used to determine cardiac critical temperature (CTmax), defined as the point at which a record of beats 30 s−1 versus temperature made an abrupt, irreversible drop (supplementary material Fig. the mussel Mytilus californianus (Rao, 1953; Logan et al., 2012). These colors can range from green to orange and even red in some cases. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 44: 203-211. More generally, we provide insights into how adaptation to temperature may occur on a time scale relevant to global change. While C. maenas was less plastic than these species, it maintains a considerably higher constitutive heat tolerance (Fig. This work was supported by the Partnership for the Interdisciplinary Study of Coastal Oceans (PISCO), the Myers Trust, the Explorer's Club Exploration Fund, the Lerner Gray Memorial Fund of the American Museum of Natural History, the Vice Provost for Graduate Education at Stanford, the Eugene C. and Aileen E. Haderlie Memorial Fund, and a National Science Foundation Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grant (1210057). Oct,1999. April 11, 2000 Due to the number of shell fish the green crab eats, and the rate at which it is done, the green crab is seen as a large threat to the many of the nations commercial shellfisheries. Though these data are collected largely offshore of our study sites, they provide long-term comparative information about temperature means and variances. Values are averaged monthly between 1987 and 2011. The green crab is known as a very vicious carnivore that will consume anything it can get its claws on. A male crab will pick a female before molting occurs and will stay with her until fertilization. In the late eighties, the crab mysteriously showed up in the San Francisco Bay area, and has since been spotted as far north as Oregon. In places like Newfoundland, where average winter water temperatures remain below 4°C for upwards of 4 months (Fig. After acclimation, crabs were subjected to a high or low temperature ramp. Chris Tutt (author), Southwestern University, Stephanie Fabritius (editor), Southwestern University. species (Schneider, 2008; Sorte et al., 2010a; Lenz et al., 2011; Lockwood and Somero, 2011; Zerebecki and Sorte, 2011). Disclaimer: ±0.05) relative to the other two East Coast NA sites (s.e.m. While this question has yet to be resolved, the contrast between studies strongly suggests that the relationship between adaptation temperature and acclimation capacity is not simple, and that we should be cautious in generalizing results. Furthermore, C. maenas maintains this broad tolerance and plasticity even after a significant loss of neutral genetic diversity (Darling et al., 2008; Tepolt et al., 2009). 1C; supplementary material Table S1). Green Crab Characteristics. In field-acclimatized animals, fH,0 decreased from north to south by 4.4 beats 30 s−1 in Europe (P<0.001) and by 7.0–8.2 beats 30 s−1 between Newfoundland and the more southern sites of New Jersey and Maine in East Coast NA (NL–NJ: P=0.002; NL–ME: P<0.001; supplementary material Table S1; Fig. By examining C. maenas in both its native and invasive ranges, we can ask whether there is any evidence for adaptation to temperature in the native range, and if so, how that adaptation has carried through to invasive populations. In the 1980s, the range of C. maenas rapidly advanced north through the Maritime Provinces of Canada, spreading to northern Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and finally to Newfoundland in 2007 (Roman, 2006; Blakeslee et al., 2010). We particularly thank Stephen Palumbi for his guidance on this project and insightful comments on many versions of this manuscript. There were no significant differences in West Coast NA or between the central site (ME) and either the northern or southern East Coast NA sites in field-acclimatized animals (P>0.05; supplementary material Table S1; Fig.
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