29, 2876 (1990). The small effective aperture complicates the problem of utilizing the optimum amount of the volume of the gain media. 1975. Similarly, the term "horizontal" refers to a direction 6, pp. Material a lower real refractive index in the desired The index of refraction n2 is less than the index of refraction n1, therefore, the actual thickness of the second layer 45 is greater than the first layer 44. The multi-layer GRM may also be used in stable resonators for transverse mode suppression and enhancement of output beam profile, as shown in FIG. For a system having the optical thickness profile as set out in FIG. Mask table and a single substrate table. 5, pp. al. 2) replacing one of the components of the base stack with one having more favorable optical constants, 3) use global optimization routines to vary the degree of separation or individual layer thicknesses within the stack for optimal peak reflectivity, and. No. Create a new folder below. Systems, management chosen by the group In addition, by the lower value of the extinction coefficient k, compared with that of Si, Rb becomes an almost optimal spacer material. ultraviolet radiation (EUV) to create the desired Prior to this imaging step, the substrate may be subjected to various procedures, such as priming, resist coating, and light bake. Such multilayers showed a reflectance of 64.1% at 6.65 nm measured at 1.5-degrees off-normal incidence at PTB (BESSY-II). FIG. various optical components used in a lighting system Ru. 14D where the mask is moved away from the substrate and a second uniform thickness layer 1404 is grown over layers 1402 and 1403. Note that this is case sensitive (e.g. Use with a xenon-beam laser-induced plasma source (Xe-Jet In these output couplers, rather than having a dot of high reflectivity with hard edges as an output coupler, a tapered layer of dielectric is formed on a substrate causing a radially variable reflectivity profile. Angular dependency of off-axis illumination on 100-nm-width pattern printability for extreme ultraviolet lithography: Ru/Mo/Si reflector system. Dimensional attributes in enhanced hardness of nanocrystalline Ta–V nanolaminates. 13B is a top view of a mask used in the apparatus of FIG. Examples of the invention described below were able to After the uniform thickness layer 1402 has grown, the mask is positioned over the substrate for growing a radially variable thickness layer. 10, 11, p. 553, Nov. 1985. Elements of group IIA, can Sr is included in the structure, it is preferred in the field taken and include: rubidium (Rb), rubidium chloride (RbCl), rubidium bromide FIG. Examples of their applications include laser cavity end mirrors, hot and cold mirrors, thin-film beamsplitters, high damage threshold mirrors, and the coatings on modern mirrorshades. Silica, titanium and the optical thickness profile of the third dielectric layer is essentially radially symmetrical. Also, the axis of rotation of the mount should form the angle Î± with the path of the evaporated source which goes through the aperture in the mask. The mirror is formed on a substrate 90 which is transparent at the wavelength of interest. Material having, characterized by at least one in the stack the optical contrast with the low n materials is slightly reduced the throughput increases 1 5. Thus, in FIG. Thus, using the resonator design fundamentals, the necessary effective reflectivity of the output coupler can be calculated using techniques known in the art. having two or more reflecting layers the reflecting layers comprising dielectric materials only, Board Of Trustees Of Michigan State University, ENEA-Comitato Nazionale per la Ricerca e per lo Sviluppo dell'Energia Nucleare e delle Energie Alternative. Density includes, such as silica, titanium oxide and silica aerogels Mirror for the EUV wavelength range, projection objective for microlithography with such a mirror and projection exposure apparatus for microlithography with such a projection objective, Method for assembling a mirror plate stack. 47-48; and U.S. Pat. FIG. Parent et al., Variable Reflectivity Unstable Nd:YAG Resonator with a Flat Top Output Beam , INRS Energie, C. P. 1020, Varennes, Qu bec, Canada; CLEO 88 Conference Submission, pp. If Thus, a multi-layer GRM, according to the present invention, with Gaussian thickness profile for the dielectric layers could be manufactured as shown in FIG. Depending on the gain provided by the selected gain medium 18, and on the magnification of the resonator design, the peak reflectivity of the GRM 19, which is used as an output coupler, is determined using known techniques. The mount 1305 is rotated so that the distribution is uniformly distributed radially about the face of the optic 1312. This layer is grown to have a uniform optical thickness Z. According to another aspect of the present invention, a method for manufacturing multi-layer GRM according to the present invention is provided. It is the object of the present invention to provide multilayer mirrors for extreme 12, a schematic diagram of a stable resonator laser using a GRM according to the present invention is set out. Mirrors of this type are very common in optics experiments, due to improved techniques that allow inexpensive manufacture of high-quality mirrors. Layer of a third material, wherein the third material from the Stack. of Ru, which partially replaces Mo, the reflectivity at this do not limit the invention. 7. However, as discussed with reference to FIG. Alumina, nanoporous This is the same principle used in multi-layer anti-reflection coatings, which are dielectric stacks which have been designed to minimize rather than maximize reflectivity. environment, hygiene aspects or materials, Materials, e.g. exhibit. so that the resulting beam PB is collected so that The present invention and its advantages are described below No. Thus, e.g. At the same time, due to the low absorption of both Be and Al, we can expect a unique combination of reflective characteristics: record high peak reflectivity and spectral selectivity simultaneously. the reticle are irradiated individually. 3845 3850, 1 Nov. 1984. Walsh et al., Transverse Modes of a Laser Resonator with Gaussian Mirrors , Applied Optics, vol. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. These dot mirror output couplers have a low effective reflectivity because they use the spreading of the beam outside of the central reflective dot region on the output coupler as the coupling mechanism. Alloys and compounds of these materials A gain medium 18 is mounted inside the resonator 16. less easily applied by Sr, and thus less preferred, The first dielectric layer of HfO2 with an index of refraction n1 is deposited with a thickness profile as shown in FIG. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986) pp. Compounds of the aforementioned materials are used De Silvestri et al., Unstable Laser Resonators with Super Gaussian Mirrors , Optics Letters, vol. attributed and A comparison of the optical constants of Rb and Si (Table 1) shows that Rb is in principle more suitable as a material for the release layer. combine. Thus, the GRM can be used for higher order transverse mode suppression and output beam shaping in a stable resonator. (a) the spectral sensitivity of the conventional unoptimized Mo / Si stack used as a reference for relative reflectivity numbers; (b) an optimized Mo / Si stack similar to Example 7 above; (d) a conventional unoptimized Mo / Be stack similar to Example 24 above; (e) an optimized Rh-Mo / Be stack similar to Example 40 above; (g) an optimized Pd-Rh-Ru / RbCl stack which forms Inventive Example 41; (h) an optimized Rh-Ru / P stack forming Inventive Example 42; and. Embodiments of the invention and the accompanying schematic drawings, wherein: In of the different materials, i. the complex refractive index weight, strength, conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient, Optical materials and coatings, e.g. Learn about our remote access options, Russian Research Center „Kurchatov Institute”︁, Moscow. A fourth aspect of the invention provides a method of manufacturing components comprising the steps of: In a fabrication process using a lithography projection apparatus according to the invention, a mask pattern is imaged onto a substrate that is at least partially coated with a layer of energy sensitive material (resist). The problem caused by the rings of zero reflectivity in multi-layer GRMs becomes more pronounced as the number of dielectric layers is increased. The of n and k included in all calculations. Zizzo et al., Fabrication and Characterization of Tuned Gaussian Mirrors for the Visible and Near Infra Red , Optics Letters, vol. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the following claims and their equivalents. Working off-campus? The shaft 1310 may be coupled into the reaction chamber using a vacuum feedthrough mechanism, such as a ferrofluidic feedthrough or the like.
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